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        3. Linux操作系统命令参考

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            File Commands
            ls – directory listing
            ls -al – formatted listing with hidden files
            cd dir - change directory to dir
            cd – change to home
            pwd – show current directory
            mkdir dir – create a directory dir
            rm file – delete file
            rm -r dir – delete directory dir
            rm -f file – force remove file
            rm -rf dir – force remove directory dir *
            cp file1 file2 – copy file1 to file2
            cp -r dir1 dir2 – copy dir1 to dir2; create dir2 if it
            doesn't exist
            mv file1 file2 – rename or move file1 to file2
            if file2 is an existing directory, moves file1 into
            directory file2
            ln -s file link – create symbolic link link to file
            touch file – create or update file
            cat > file – places standard input into file
            more file – output the contents of file
            head file – output the first 10 lines of file
            tail file – output the last 10 lines of file
            tail -f file – output the contents of file as it
            grows, starting with the last 10 lines

            Process Management
            ps – display your currently active processes
            top – display all running processes
            kill pid – kill process id pid
            killall proc – kill all processes named proc *
            bg – lists stopped or background jobs; resume a
            stopped job in the background
            fg – brings the most recent job to foreground
            fg n – brings job n to the foreground

            File Permissions
            chmod octal file – change the permissions of file
            to octal, which can be found separately for user,
            group, and world by adding:
            4 – read (r)
            2 – write (w)
            1 – execute (x)
            chmod 777 – read, write, execute for all
            chmod 755 – rwx for owner, rx for group and world
            For more options, see man chmod.

            ssh user@host – connect to host as user
            ssh -p port user@host – connect to host on port
            port as user
            ssh-copy-id user@host – add your key to host for
            user to enable a keyed or passwordless login

            grep pattern files – search for pattern in files
            grep -r pattern dir – search recursively for
            pattern in dir
            command | grep pattern – search for pattern in the
            output of command
            locate file – find all instances of file

            System Info
            date – show the current date and time
            cal – show this month's calendar
            uptime – show current uptime
            w – display who is online
            whoami – who you are logged in as
            finger user – display information about user
            uname -a – show kernel information
            cat /proc/cpuinfo – cpu information
            cat /proc/meminfo – memory information
            man command – show the manual for command
            df – show disk usage
            du – show directory space usage
            free – show memory and swap usage
            whereis app – show possible locations of app
            which app – show which app will be run by default

            tar cf file.tar files – create a tar named
            file.tar containing files
            tar xf file.tar – extract the files from file.tar
            tar czf file.tar.gz files – create a tar with