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              File Commands
              ls – directory listing
              ls -al – formatted listing with hidden files
              cd dir - change directory to dir
              cd – change to home
              pwd – show current directory
              mkdir dir – create a directory dir
              rm file – delete file
              rm -r dir – delete directory dir
              rm -f file – force remove file
              rm -rf dir – force remove directory dir *
              cp file1 file2 – copy file1 to file2
              cp -r dir1 dir2 – copy dir1 to dir2; create dir2 if it
              doesn't exist
              mv file1 file2 – rename or move file1 to file2
              if file2 is an existing directory, moves file1 into
              directory file2
              ln -s file link – create symbolic link link to file
              touch file – create or update file
              cat > file – places standard input into file
              more file – output the contents of file
              head file – output the first 10 lines of file
              tail file – output the last 10 lines of file
              tail -f file – output the contents of file as it
              grows, starting with the last 10 lines

              Process Management
              ps – display your currently active processes
              top – display all running processes
              kill pid – kill process id pid
              killall proc – kill all processes named proc *
              bg – lists stopped or background jobs; resume a
              stopped job in the background
              fg – brings the most recent job to foreground
              fg n – brings job n to the foreground

              File Permissions
              chmod octal file – change the permissions of file
              to octal, which can be found separately for user,
              group, and world by adding:
              4 – read (r)
              2 – write (w)
              1 – execute (x)
              chmod 777 – read, write, execute for all
              chmod 755 – rwx for owner, rx for group and world
              For more options, see man chmod.

              ssh user@host – connect to host as user
              ssh -p port user@host – connect to host on port
              port as user
              ssh-copy-id user@host – add your key to host for
              user to enable a keyed or passwordless login

              grep pattern files – search for pattern in files
              grep -r pattern dir – search recursively for
              pattern in dir
              command | grep pattern – search for pattern in the
              output of command
              locate file – find all instances of file

              System Info
              date – show the current date and time
              cal – show this month's calendar
              uptime – show current uptime
              w – display who is online
              whoami – who you are logged in as
              finger user – display information about user
              uname -a – show kernel information
              cat /proc/cpuinfo – cpu information
              cat /proc/meminfo – memory information
              man command – show the manual for command
              df – show disk usage
              du – show directory space usage
              free – show memory and swap usage
              whereis app – show possible locations of app
              which app – show which app will be run by default

              tar cf file.tar files – create a tar named
              file.tar containing files
              tar xf file.tar – extract the files from file.tar
              tar czf file.tar.gz files – create a tar with