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          1. 详解Linux中获取全球唯一标示符UUID的方法

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                UUID(Universally Unique IDentifiers),全球唯一标示符.它是一个标识系统中的存储装备的字符串,使其确定系统中的所有存储装备 。

                为什么要使用UUID?由于系统自动分配的装备名称并非总是一致的,它们依赖于启动时内核加载模块的顺序.相同的名称可能代表差别的硬盘分区.若是每个分区有一个唯一的UUID值,尤其是在grub中的kernel设置,这样就不会发生分区识别杂乱的问题.

                下面先容几种要领来获得UUID.

                1.最简朴的要领就是使用blkid下令,它主要用来对系统的块装备(包罗交流分区)所使用的文件系统类型,LABEL,UUID等信息查询. 使用这个下令需要安装e2fsprogs包.

                复制代码

                代码如下:

                root@10.1.1.200:~# dpkg -l | grep e2fsprogs

                ii e2fsprogs 1.41.3-1 ext2/ext3/ext4 file system utilities

                ii libuuid-perl 0.02-4 Perl extension for using UUID interfaces as defined in e2fsprogs

                root@10.1.1.200:~# blkid

                /dev/sda1: UUID="b20e80f1-c88d-4918-9d9b-75cd7906629e" TYPE="ext3"

                /dev/sda5: TYPE="swap" UUID="1fb3d17b-b2fe-470d-b39c-f00c4a30efbf"

                /dev/sda6: UUID="c7050200-7efb-468c-81d1-a3add309bee1" TYPE="ext3" SEC_TYPE="ext2"

                /dev/sda7: UUID="934e4e22-3431-4707-8d47-dca47e76f448" TYPE="xfs"

                /dev/hioa: UUID="de0af117-ad92-4867-aa21-3e7d423e8864" TYPE="xfs"

                root@10.1.1.200:~# blkid /dev/sda1

                /dev/sda1: UUID="b20e80f1-c88d-4918-9d9b-75cd7906629e" TYPE="ext3"

                root@10.1.1.200:~# cat /etc/blkid.tab

                /dev/sda1

                /dev/sda5

                /dev/sda6

                /dev/sda7

                /dev/hioa

                2.通过浏览/dev/disk/by-uuid/下的装备文件信息.

                复制代码

                代码如下:

                root@10.1.1.200:~# ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid/

                total 0

                lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 2013-03-19 11:01 1fb3d17b-b2fe-470d-b39c-f00c4a30efbf -> ../../sda5

                lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 2013-03-19 11:01 934e4e22-3431-4707-8d47-dca47e76f448 -> ../../sda7

                lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 2013-03-19 11:01 b20e80f1-c88d-4918-9d9b-75cd7906629e -> ../../sda1

                lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 2013-03-19 11:01 c7050200-7efb-468c-81d1-a3add309bee1 -> ../../sda6

                lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 2013-03-19 11:02 de0af117-ad92-4867-aa21-3e7d423e8864 -> ../../hioa

                root@10.1.1.200:~# ls -l /dev/disk/by-uuid/ | grep sda1 | awk '{print $8}'

                b20e80f1-c88d-4918-9d9b-75cd7906629e

                3.通过vol_id下令检察

                复制代码

                代码如下:

                root@10.1.1.200:~# vol_id /dev/sda1

                ID_FS_USAGE=filesystem

                ID_FS_TYPE=ext3

                ID_FS_VERSION=1.0

                ID_FS_UUID=b20e80f1-c88d-4918-9d9b-75cd7906629e

                ID_FS_UUID_ENC=b20e80f1-c88d-4918-9d9b-75cd7906629e

                ID_FS_LABEL=

                ID_FS_LABEL_ENC=

                ID_FS_LABEL_SAFE=

                root@10.1.1.200:~# vol_id /dev/sda1 | grep 'UUID'

                ID_FS_UUID=b20e80f1-c88d-4918-9d9b-75cd7906629e

                ID_FS_UUID_ENC=b20e80f1-c88d-4918-9d9b-75cd7906629e、

                4.使用tune2fs,,它是linux下文件系统调整工具

                复制代码

                代码如下:

                root@10.1.1.200:~# tune2fs -l /dev/sda1

                tune2fs 1.41.3 (12-Oct-2008)

                Filesystem volume name:

                Last mounted on:

                Filesystem UUID: b20e80f1-c88d-4918-9d9b-75cd7906629e

                Filesystem magic number: 0xEF53

                Filesystem revision #: 1 (dynamic)

                Filesystem features: has_journal ext_attr resize_inode dir_index filetype needs_recovery sparse_super large_file

                Filesystem flags: signed_directory_hash

                Default mount options: (none)

                Filesystem state: clean

                Errors behavior: Continue

                Filesystem OS type: Linux

                Inode count: 1864128

                Block count: 7442103

                Reserved block count: 372105

                Free blocks: 6884819

                Free inodes: 1712582

                First block: 0

                root@10.1.1.200:~# tune2fs -l /dev/sda1 | grep 'UUID'

                Filesystem UUID: b20e80f1-c88d-4918-9d9b-75cd7906629e

                这里分外在看下tune2fs一些常用参数:

                复制代码

                代码如下:

                root@192.168.2.80:~# tune2fs --help

                tune2fs 1.41.3 (12-Oct-2008)

                tune2fs: invalid option -- '-'

                Usage: tune2fs [-e errors_behavior] [-g group]

                [-i interval[d|m|w]] 文件系统的检查距离时间,系统在到达时间距离,自动检查文件系统.

                [-j] [-J journal_options] 转换文件系统

                [-l] 显示文件系统参数

                [-m reserved_blocks_percent] 设置保留的空间百分比

                [-o [^]mount_options[,...]] 设置默认加载参数.

                [-c max_mounts_count] 表现文件系统在mount次数到达设定后  ,需要运行fsck检查文件系统 。

                通常若是使用ext3文件系统的话 ,使用-c 0关掉mount次数到达后的文件系统检查 。

                克制强制的文件系统检查:

                复制代码

                代码如下:

                root@10.1.1.200:~# tune2fs -i0 -c0 /dev/sda1

                tune2fs 1.41.3 (12-Oct-2008)

                Setting maximal mount count to -1

                Setting interval between checks to 0 seconds

                另有一个dump2fs也是文件系统调整的工具.

                dump2fs显示当前的磁盘状态:

                复制代码

                代码如下:

                root@10.1.1.200:~# dumpe2fs /dev/sda1

                Filesystem volume name:

                Last mounted on:

                Filesystem UUID: b20e80f1-c88d-4918-9d9b-75cd7906629e

                Filesystem magic number: 0xEF53

                Filesystem revision #: 1 (dynamic)

                Filesystem features: has_journal ext_attr resize_inode dir_index filetype needs_recovery sparse_super large_file

                Filesystem flags: signed_directory_hash

                Default mount options: (none)

                Filesystem state: clean

                Errors behavior: Continue

                Filesystem OS type: Linux

                Inode count: 1864128

                Block count: 7442103

                Reserved block count: 372105

                Free blocks: 6884819

                Free inodes: 1712582

                First block: 0

                Block size: 4096

                Fragment size: 4096

                Reserved GDT blocks: 1022

                Blocks per group: 32768

                Fragments per group: 32768

                Inodes per group: 8176

                Inode blocks per group: 511

                Filesystem created: Fri Nov 16 15:36:59 2012

                Last mount time: Tue Mar 19 11:02:58 2013

                Last write time: Wed Mar 27 14:09:25 2013

                Mount count: 17

                Maximum mount count: -1

                Last checked: Fri Nov 16 15:36:59 2012

                Check interval: 0 ()

                Reserved blocks uid: 0 (user root)

                Reserved blocks gid: 0 (group root)

                First inode: 11

                Inode size: 256

                Required extra isize: 28

                Desired extra isize: 28

                Journal inode: 8

                First orphan inode: 1618875

                Default directory hash: half_md4

                Directory Hash Seed: 3090ccf1-625c-4934-9ec4-be3f74767f98

                Journal backup: inode blocks

                Journal size: 128M

                复制代码

                代码如下:

                Group 0: (Blocks 0-32767)

                Primary superblock at 0, Group descriptors at 1-2

                Reserved GDT blocks at 3-1024

                Block bitmap at 1025 (+1025), Inode bitmap at 1026 (+1026)

                Inode table at 1027-1537 (+1027)

                0 free blocks, 8152 free inodes, 2 directories

                Free blocks:

                Free inodes: 22, 25, 27-8176

                Group 1: (Blocks 32768-65535)

                Backup superblock at 32768, Group descriptors at 32769-32770

                Reserved GDT blocks at 32771-33792

                Block bitmap at 33793 (+1025), Inode bitmap at 33794 (+1026)

                Inode table at 33795-34305 (+1027)

                3 free blocks, 8176 free inodes, 0 directories

                Free blocks: 34309-34311

                Free inodes: 8177-16352

                Group 2: (Blocks 65536-98303)

                Block bitmap at 65536 (+0), Inode bitmap at 65537 (+1)

                Inode table at 65538-66048 (+2)

                7 free blocks, 8176 free inodes, 0 directories

                Free blocks: 66049-66055

                Free inodes: 16353-24528

                Group 3: (Blocks 98304-131071)

                Backup superblock at 98304, Group descriptors at 98305-98306

                Reserved GDT blocks at 98307-99328

                Block bitmap at 99329 (+1025), Inode bitmap at 99330 (+1026)

                Inode table at 99331-99841 (+1027)

                6 free blocks, 8176 free inodes, 0 directories

                Free blocks: 99842-99847

                Free inodes: 24529-32704

                Group 4: (Blocks 131072-163839)

                Block bitmap at 131072 (+0), Inode bitmap at 131073 (+1)

                Inode table at 131074-131584 (+2)

                63 free blocks, 0 free inodes, 0 directories

                Free blocks: 132074-132079, 133643-133647, 135671, 137739-137743, 139811-139815, 141814-141815, 143879, 145922-145927, 147933-147935, 150022-150023, 15207

                1, 154107-154111, 156169-156175, 158202-158207, 160251-160255, 162293-162295

                Free inodes:

                Group 5: (Blocks 163840-196607)

                Backup superblock at 163840, Group descriptors at 163841-163842

                Reserved GDT blocks at 163843-164864

                Block bitmap at 164865 (+1025), Inode bitmap at 164866 (+1026)

                Inode table at 164867-165377 (+1027)

                0 free blocks, 8130 free inodes, 0 directories

                Free blocks:

                Free inodes: 40881, 40928-49056