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            Linux系统下对硬盘分区进行扩容的方法总结

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                硬盘快满了  ,加硬盘扩容 ,不管是自力的服务器  ,照旧云空间新买的硬盘  ,扩容方式一样 。下面以阿里VPS为例  ,详细说一下  ,挂载硬盘扩容的2种要领 。

                阿里VPS  ,小我私家以为有以下二个方面需要革新

                1  ,默认不是lvm ,以是系统盘/dev/xvda1是不能扩容的  ,以是若是有大数据的工具  ,一最先就要思量到扩容的问题  。数据量越大  ,操作风险越大  。

                2  ,不能实现无缝扩容  ,也就是说  ,在后台扩容一下  ,不用登录到VPS  ,举行调整 。非专业人士 ,扩容难题

                一  ,不接纳lvm  ,直接将硬盘挂载到目录

                1  ,检察硬盘分区情形

                代码如下:

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# df

                Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on

                /dev/xvda1 20641404 14778400 4814480 76% /

                tmpfs 509300 0 509300 0% /dev/shm

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# fdisk -l

                Disk /dev/xvda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes

                255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders

                Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

                Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

                I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

                Disk identifier: 0x00078f9c

                Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System

                /dev/xvda1 * 1 2611 20970496 83 Linux //id是83  ,非lvm

                Disk /dev/xvdb: 23.6 GB, 23622320128 bytes //新买的硬盘

                255 heads, 56 sectors/track, 3230 cylinders

                Units = cylinders of 14280 * 512 = 7311360 bytes

                Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

                I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

                Disk identifier: 0x27cc1f5a

                2  ,硬盘分区并检察分区情形

                代码如下:

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# fdisk -S 56 /dev/xvdb //分区

                WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to

                switch off the mode (command 'c') and change display units to

                sectors (command 'u').

                Command (m for help): n //输入n

                Command action

                e extended

                p primary partition (1-4)

                p //主分区

                Partition number (1-4): 1 //分区号1

                First cylinder (1-3230, default 1):

                Using default value 1

                Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1-3230, default 3230):

                Using default value 3230

                Command (m for help): wq //生存并退出

                The partition table has been altered!

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# fdisk -l

                Disk /dev/xvda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes

                255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders

                Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

                Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

                I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

                Disk identifier: 0x00078f9c

                Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System

                /dev/xvda1 * 1 2611 20970496 83 Linux

                Disk /dev/xvdb: 23.6 GB, 23622320128 bytes

                255 heads, 56 sectors/track, 3230 cylinders

                Units = cylinders of 14280 * 512 = 7311360 bytes

                Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

                I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

                Disk identifier: 0x27cc1f5a

                Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System

                /dev/xvdb1 1 3230 23062172 83 Linux //分区后

                3  ,花样化新分区xvdb1

                代码如下:

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/xvdb1 //花样化分区

                mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)

                Filesystem label=

                OS type: Linux

                Block size=4096 (log=2)

                Fragment size=4096 (log=2)

                Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks

                1441792 inodes, 5765543 blocks

                288277 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user

                First data block=0

                Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296

                176 block groups

                32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group

                8192 inodes per group

                Superblock backups stored on blocks:

                32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,

                4096000

                Writing inode tables: done

                Creating journal (32768 blocks): done

                Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

                This filesystem will be automatically checked every 35 mounts or

                180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.

                4  ,建立目录 ,并挂载分区

                代码如下:

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# mkdir /mnt/fastdfs //挂载目录

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# echo "/dev/xvdb1 /mnt/fastdfs ext4 defaults 0 0" >> /etc/fstab //重启会自动挂载

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# mount -a //挂载所有目录

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# df

                Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on

                /dev/xvda1 20641404 14778404 4814476 76% /

                tmpfs 509300 0 509300 0% /dev/shm

                /dev/xvdb1 22694396 176064 21365516 1% /mnt/fastdfs //新的分区已挂载

                到这儿  ,就把一块自力的硬盘加到系统当中了  。这种扩容的方式操作简朴  ,可是扩展性不强  ,不推荐这种扩容方式  。

                二  ,接纳lvm的方式  ,举行硬盘扩容(推荐)

                1  ,作废前面测试的挂载  ,并删除分区

                代码如下:

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# umount -a //作废挂载

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# fdisk /dev/xvdb //分区

                WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to

                switch off the mode (command 'c') and change display units to

                sectors (command 'u').

                Command (m for help): d //删除分区

                Selected partition 1

                Command (m for help): wq //生存

                The partition table has been altered!

                2 ,安装lvm

                代码如下:

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ nginx]# uname -a //检察内核信息

                Linux iZ94zz3wqciZ 2.6.32-431.23.3.el6.x86_64 #1 SMP Thu Jul 31 17:20:51 UTC 2014 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# yum install lvm2 device-mapper //安装 LVM2 ,2.6.9以后版本不用装device-mapper

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ nginx]# lsmod | grep dm_mod //是否加载了dm_mod

                dm_mod 84337 5 dm_mirror,dm_log

                lvm的安装,首先加载device-mapper模块 ,从linux内核2.6.9最先  ,device-mapper模块就已经包罗在内  ,以是你只需加载即可  。加载mapper模块:modprobe dm_mod  。

                3  ,建立lvm分区

                代码如下:

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# fdisk /dev/xvdb //分区

                WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to

                switch off the mode (command 'c') and change display units to

                sectors (command 'u').

                Command (m for help): l

                0 Empty 24 NEC DOS 81 Minix / old Lin bf Solaris

                1 FAT12 39 Plan 9 82 Linux swap / So c1 DRDOS/sec (FAT-

                2 XENIX root 3c PartitionMagic 83 Linux c4 DRDOS/sec (FAT-

                3 XENIX usr 40 Venix 80286 84 OS/2 hidden C: c6 DRDOS/sec (FAT-

                4 FAT16 <32M 41 PPC PReP Boot 85 Linux extended c7 Syrinx

                5 Extended 42 SFS 86 NTFS volume set da Non-FS data

                6 FAT16 4d QNX4.x 87 NTFS volume set db CP/M / CTOS / .

                7 HPFS/NTFS 4e QNX4.x 2nd part 88 Linux plaintext de Dell Utility

                8 AIX 4f QNX4.x 3rd part 8e Linux LVM df BootIt

                9 AIX bootable 50 OnTrack DM 93 Amoeba e1 DOS access

                a OS/2 Boot Manag 51 OnTrack DM6 Aux 94 Amoeba BBT e3 DOS R/O

                b W95 FAT32 52 CP/M 9f BSD/OS e4 SpeedStor

                c W95 FAT32 (LBA) 53 OnTrack DM6 Aux a0 IBM Thinkpad hi eb BeOS fs

                e W95 FAT16 (LBA) 54 OnTrackDM6 a5 FreeBSD ee GPT

                f W95 Ext'd (LBA) 55 EZ-Drive a6 OpenBSD ef EFI (FAT-12/16/

                10 OPUS 56 Golden Bow a7 NeXTSTEP f0 Linux/PA-RISC b

                11 Hidden FAT12 5c Priam Edisk a8 Darwin UFS f1 SpeedStor

                12 Compaq diagnost 61 SpeedStor a9 NetBSD f4 SpeedStor

                14 Hidden FAT16 <3 63 GNU HURD or Sys ab Darwin boot f2 DOS secondary

                16 Hidden FAT16 64 Novell Netware af HFS / HFS+ fb VMware VMFS

                17 Hidden HPFS/NTF 65 Novell Netware b7 BSDI fs fc VMware VMKCORE

                18 AST SmartSleep 70 DiskSecure Mult b8 BSDI swap fd Linux raid auto

                1b Hidden W95 FAT3 75 PC/IX bb Boot Wizard hid fe LANstep

                1c Hidden W95 FAT3 80 Old Minix be Solaris boot ff BBT

                1e Hidden W95 FAT1

                Command (m for help): n

                Command action

                e extended

                p primary partition (1-4)

                p

                Partition number (1-4): 1

                First cylinder (1-2871, default 1):

                Using default value 1

                Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1-2871, default 2871):

                Using default value 2871

                Command (m for help): p

                Disk /dev/xvdb: 23.6 GB, 23622320128 bytes

                255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2871 cylinders

                Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

                Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

                I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

                Disk identifier: 0x27cc1f5a

                Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System

                /dev/xvdb1 1 2871 23061276 83 Linux //不是lvm分区花样

                Command (m for help): t //转换

                Selected partition 1

                Hex code (type L to list codes): 8e //换成8e

                Changed system type of partition 1 to 8e (Linux LVM)

                Command (m for help): p

                Disk /dev/xvdb: 23.6 GB, 23622320128 bytes

                255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2871 cylinders

                Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

                Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

                I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

                Disk identifier: 0x27cc1f5a

                Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System

                /dev/xvdb1 1 2871 23061276 8e Linux LVM //现在lvm分区花样了

                Command (m for help): wq

                The partition table has been altered!

                Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

                Syncing disks.

                4  ,建立逻辑卷组  ,以及逻辑卷等

                代码如下:

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# pvcreate /dev/xvdb1 //建立物理卷

                Physical volume "/dev/xvdb1" successfully created

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# vgcreate myfiles /dev/xvdb1 //建立逻辑卷组

                Volume group "myfiles" successfully created

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# vgchange -ay myfiles //激活逻辑卷组

                0 logical volume(s) in volume group "myfiles" now active

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# vgdisplay myfiles | grep "Total PE" //检察该卷组所有的PE

                Total PE 5629

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# lvcreate -l 5629 -n fastdfs myfiles //建立逻辑卷

                Logical volume "fastdfs" created.

                5  ,花样化逻辑卷

                代码如下:

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/myfiles/fastdfs //花样化逻辑卷

                mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)

                Filesystem label=

                OS type: Linux

                Block size=4096 (log=2)

                Fragment size=4096 (log=2)

                Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks

                1441792 inodes, 5764096 blocks

                288204 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user

                First data block=0

                Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296

                176 block groups

                32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group

                8192 inodes per group

                Superblock backups stored on blocks:

                32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,

                4096000

                Writing inode tables: done

                Creating journal (32768 blocks): done

                Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

                This filesystem will be automatically checked every 39 mounts or

                180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.

                6,设置自动挂载  ,并检察分区

                复制代码

                代码如下:

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# echo '/dev/myfiles/fastdfs /mnt/fastdfs ext4 defaults 0 0' >> /etc/fstab //自动挂载

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# mount -a //手动挂载

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# df

                Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on

                /dev/xvda1 20641404 14778608 4814272 76% /

                tmpfs 509300 0 509300 0% /dev/shm

                /dev/mapper/myfiles-fastdfs

                22694396 176064 21365516 1% /mnt/fastdfs //lvm逻辑卷已挂载

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# reboot //操作完最好重启一下

                7  ,再扩容一块硬盘到已有逻辑卷

                代码如下:

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# fdisk /dev/xvdc //详细历程同上  ,就不详细说明晰

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# reboot

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# pvcreate /dev/xvdc1 //建立物理卷

                Physical volume "/dev/xvdc1" successfully created

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# vgextend myfiles /dev/xvdc1 //将新硬盘加入卷组

                Volume group "myfiles" successfully extended

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# vgdisplay myfiles | grep "Total PE" //检察所有PE

                Total PE 6907

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# lvresize -l 6907 /dev/myfiles/fastdfs //重新划定巨细

                Size of logical volume myfiles/fastdfs changed from 21.99 GiB (5629 extents) to 26.98 GiB (6907 extents).

                Logical volume fastdfs successfully resized

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# resize2fs /dev/myfiles/fastdfs //重新划定巨细

                resize2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)

                Filesystem at /dev/myfiles/fastdfs is mounted on /mnt/fastdfs; on-line resizing required

                old desc_blocks = 2, new_desc_blocks = 2

                Performing an on-line resize of /dev/myfiles/fastdfs to 7072768 (4k) blocks.

                The filesystem on /dev/myfiles/fastdfs is now 7072768 blocks long.

                [root@iZ94zz3wqciZ ~]# df -h

                Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on

                /dev/xvda1 20G 15G 4.6G 76% /

                tmpfs 498M 0 498M 0% /dev/shm

                /dev/mapper/myfiles-fastdfs

                27G 172M 26G 1% /mnt/fastdfs //新的5G硬盘加上去了

                若是是频仍的扩容硬盘的话 ,LVM是首选  ,扩展真的很利便 。